06/08/2015

A face pouco conhecida da vida diplomática - Parte XIX

Viajar é muito bom, mas quando deslocar-se pelo globo se torna parte do seu trabalho, pode ser tornar, em alguns momentos, um inconveniente. Nesse sentido, gostaria de compartilhar com vocês novos estudos realizados sobre "o lado obscuro da hipermobilidade". 

Imagem do filme Up in the Air

Viagens frequentes são prejudiciais para a saúde e o bem estar, alerta estudo 


O GLOBO: Pesquisadores britânicos e suecos apontam existência do ‘lado negro’ sobre estar sempre em um lugar diferente. Pesquisadores da Universidade de Surrey, na Inglaterra, e da Universidade de Lund, na Suécia, investigaram como viagens frequentes e de longa distância são representadas nas mídias tradicionais e nas redes sociais. Eles descobriram que as imagens retratadas não levam em conta os efeitos secundários prejudiciais de viagens frequentes, como confusão de fusos, trombose venosa profunda, exposição à radiação, estresse, solidão e distância da família e da comunidade. “Um homem em um terno arrumado, deitado em uma cadeira de couro, laptop aberto na frente dele, uma aeromoça sorridente servindo um uísque com soda. Isso é muitas vezes a imagem de viagens, particularmente viagens de negócios retratadas em anúncios de TV e revistas. Mas há um lado escuro para este estilo de vida hipermóvel ‘glamurizado’ que a mídia e a sociedade ignoram”, explicou o autor principal, Scott Cohen, da Universidade de Surrey. “O nível de estresse fisiológico, físico e social que viagens frequentes criam em indivíduos tem efeitos negativos potencialmente graves e de longo prazo que vão desde a quebra das relações familiares, para mudanças em nossos genes, devido à falta de sono.”

Para ler a íntegra, basta acessar: oglobo.globo.com

Imagem do filme Up in the Air
Após ler essa notícia, fui atrás de mais informações e encontrei o paper com os resultados da pesquisa "A darker side of hipermobility"no link: http://epn.sagepub.com (basta clicar, que vai direto para o artigo). Segue a introdução desse trabalho, bastante interessante.

A darker side of hypermobility 


Scott A Cohen 
School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
E-mail: s.cohen@surrey.ac.uk 

Stefan Gössling
Department of Service Management, Lund University, Sweden
School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Sweden

Abstract.
Since the formulation of the mobilities paradigm, research has shown that movement is increasingly at the heart of our social identities. This paper argues that mobility, and indeed, hypermobility, constitutes to a growing extent who we are, whilst societal perspectives on mobility increasingly dictate how we need to move in time and space in order to accrue network capital. In this critical review, deeply embedded mechanisms of the social glamorization of mobility are uncovered, and juxtaposed with what we call a ‘darker side’ of hypermobility, including the physiological, psychological, emotional and social costs of mobility for individuals and societies. The paper concludes that whilst aspects of glamorization in regard to mobility are omnipresent in our lives, there exists an ominous silence with regard to its darker side.

Keywords: glamorization, network capital, mobility consequences, transport, behaviour change

Introduction
Elite forms of movement, such as for business, holidays or diplomatic journeys, are largely shown in a positive light in contemporary societies. Although there is unevenness in the portrayal of corporeal mobilities with growing fear over epidemiological threats facilitated through global mobility, negative representations of flight from poverty and persecution and the problematizing of irregular migration, mobility for business and pleasure is typically glamorized and encouraged in more privileged societies. The glamorization of elite mobility is part of broader processes of global capitalist consumption within conditions of neoliberalism, wherein circulation and accumulation within networks are unevenly experienced and materialized. Social capital is increasingly based on one’s power to be mobile and cultivate global networks, or what Larsen et al. (2006) refer to as ‘network capital’. Network capital is understood here as interrelationships between social relations and social support (Carrasco and Cid-Aguayo, 2012); that is, as a form of social capital that makes “resources available through interpersonal ties” (Wellman and Frank, 2001: 273). As social networks become more dispersed, “access to communication technologies and affordable and well-connected transport”, for instance, are elements comprising network capital, as they make ties in social networks more accessible (Gössling and Stavrinidi, 2015; Larsen et al., 2006: 280; Rettie, 2008).

Both network capital and mobility are, however, not evenly distributed across societies (Cresswell, 2010). The life-chances it affords are ‘heavily skewed’ also (Urry, 2012), with a minor share of highly mobile individuals accounting for a major proportion of the overall distances travelled (Gössling et al., 2009). This mobile elite is well connected to global networks, and have been described as ‘hypermobile’, with these hypermobile lifestyles closely but not exclusively linked to the practice of business travel (Frändberg and Vilhelmson, 2003). For example, in Sweden, just 3% of the population undertake nearly a quarter of all international journeys (Frändberg and Vilhelmson, 2003), whereas in France 5% of the population account for as much as 50% of the overall distances covered (Gössling et al., 2009). 

The high social status associated with frequent corporeal mobility in some more privileged societies, specifically by air and road, is at least partly attributable to its glamorization in the media and other forms of public discourse (Thurlow and Jaworski, 2006). The purpose of this critical review is to further investigate the social mechanisms through which hypermobility is glamorized in the contemporary world. We define ‘glamorization’ as the social processes by which something is idealized and made desirable. Our aim is to show how network capital is constructed through mobility, and the manifold mechanisms through which transport and mobility have become signifiers of social status. By doing so, we reveal some of the fundamental social processes through which hypermobility is made exciting and appealing. We juxtapose this with an examination of the darker side of hypermobility, in terms of its physiological, psychological, emotional and social consequences for individuals and society. We argue that the glamorization of hypermobility has silenced the negative personal and social costs of frequent travel. This juxtaposition of the darker sides of hypermobility with the mechanisms of its glamorization is consequently a methodological inroad to make transparent the one-sided mirror that frames hypermobility as desirable. The geographical lens in this paper is largely Northern European, drawing on empirical examples, cases and literature on both business and leisure travel from different places within that region. 


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